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Part of "Main Worldviews":

Reasoning To The Ultimate/Absolute Being and Reality

- Rhett R. Totten - (c) 2017

Since a "worldview" should assert what the prime or "ultimate Reality" or Being is (such as "God" or Energy/Matter), we would like to arrive at a depiction of that reality. Of course, many readers would object that I (as a Christian) would just "conveniently" describe the Bible's viewpoint. --So it seems better that we approach this from another direction: Let us start from a "blank slate," and attempt to imagine such an ultimate/absolute being, and let us create a number of propositions indicating what this ultimate and greatest being would be like --if it could exist. So --starting from scratch-- let's try to conceive of these attributes of the greatest being possible.

25 Propositions Which Point to The Ultimate/Absolute Being --That Which is "Greater"

1. Existence is greater than non-existence.

If there were an Ultimate and Absolute Being, it would have to actually exist in factual reality. It could not be merely imaginary, theoretical or fictional. An ultimate Being must actually "Be!" In fact, there could never be a possibility, circumstance or real realm in which that Being would not really exist. Existing must eternally be part of its attributes and essence. And such a Being could not be dependent on anything else for its existence, but it would have to necessarily exist in-and-of-itself. It must be a non-created and "necessary being" --the ground of all existence. So, everything else would fundamentally and ultimately derive its existence from this necessary being.

2. Logic is greater than no logic or non-logic.

An ultimate/absolute Being must possess logic and be consistent with logic. --If one posits that there is no logic, then there would also be no perceiving, thinking, or meaning that could exist, and it would be ultimately meaningless to talk and try to reason about anything --including an absolute Being. If there is no logic, then all existence (point #1), thinking and reality are ultimately meaningless and impossible --and we would have nothing real to experience, think or say to anyone. Discussion over. We basically would not exist. (This is why Descartes said, "I think, therefore I exist.") -- Thus, non-logic is a self-destructing, nonsense proposition; non-logic cannot be ultimate, greatest or absolute. There would be no absolute Being. --Nobody in their right mind lives their life (or raises their children) as if there is no logic or thinking in our existence. A truly absolute/ultimate Being must possess logic, be consistent with it, and must be logical.

... To basically spell them out, the three laws of logic (also called laws of "thought") are:

If anyone were to try to reject these laws of logic (or assert that they do not really exist), that rejector would have to use these laws in order to think about them and to try to reject them --and to communicate that rejection. Again, therefore: Non-logic is self-defeating, self-destructing and nonsense. --Without these laws of logic, any thinking or discussion about an ultimate/absolute Being (or thinking about anything) would be empty and terminated. And any being lacking these logical principles would not be ultimate or absolute. So, if there truly is an ultimate/absolute Being, it must always be logical and possess and be consistent with these three laws of logic.

3. Being rational is greater than being non-rational or irrational.

If something is ultimate, greatest and logical, it must (as an out-growth of #2) also be rational and possess rationality. Rationality is the use and application of sound logic. We see this throughout all mankind. --But if something is irrational or non-rational, then it is also self-destructive, self-defeating, failing and disintegrating. It cannot possibly be ultimate or absolute, and (like point #2) it is ultimately nonsense and not worth talking about. The ultimate Being must be fully, ultimately and absolutely rational.

4. Having knowledge is greater than ignorance or no knowledge.

This comes out of the above two points since logic and rationality issue forth in knowledge. Ultimate knowledge is connected to reality. --And as an extension of this: Being all-knowing is greater than knowing only in part. --A Being which is truly ultimate/absolute must be all-knowing.

5. Having wisdom is greater than non-wisdom or stupidity and foolishness.

This is an extension of the above three points of having all logical, rational knowledge. Wisdom is the judicious, logical, rational, economical, productive use and application of knowledge, facts and things; ultimate wisdom involves the best planning and interaction with all true facts in reality. And in addition, being all-wise is greater than only somewhat wise. --Something truly ultimate/absolute must be all-wise.

6. Being truthful and true is greater than being un-truthful and un-true.

Truthfulness is an out-growth of being perfectly logical and rational and having all knowledge and wisdom. Any such ultimate/absolute Being must be absolutely truthful and true.

7. Having a mind is greater than being mindless.

-- This is an extension from the previous five points. -- Logic, rationality, knowledge, wisdom, and truth unavoidably imply and describe the possession of a thinking and ultimate mind as a necessary attribute of the ultimate/absolute Being.

8. Being organized is greater than being disorganized.

-- This must be a characteristic of an ultimate/absolute logical mind with all knowledge and wisdom, as indicated by the above points.

9. Being purposeful is greater than being non-purposeful.

-- Being purposeful is an outgrowth of a mind possessing all the above attributes. --This describes the absolute Being as having a "will" ...the ability to plan, decide and do things.

10. Being creative is greater than being non-creative.

-- Creativity would be an outgrowth of a mind that appreciates organization and all possible wise, ideal relationships and configurations of things --and who would choose to do excellent things with that creativity. And --as the "necessary being" (point 1)-- the ultimate/absolute being would have to be creative and the creator of all other things. --(Also, "creativity" implies the appreciation and creation of beauty.)

11. Being personal and self-aware is greater than being non-personal and unaware.

-- The above nine items imply and describe the attribute of "personality" and self-awareness as necessary in the ultimate/absolute being. In contrast, non-personality would lack them and would be lesser and non-ultimate.

12. Being all-powerful is greater than being somewhat strong ...or powerless.

-- When one considers the massive immensity and powers of the universe, the ultimate/absolute (creator) must be something even inconceivably greater. To be ultimate it must be all-powerful. --(If there were a "multiverse," the ultimate being must be much greater than that.)

13. Being un-caused is greater than being caused.

-- If something is caused, it is derivative and dependent on what caused it; it is not as great. --The Ultimate being must be un-caused; un-created.

14. Being eternal is greater than being temporal.

-- Temporal things have a beginning and must be caused to begin, and therefore are dependent and not as great. --The ultimate must be eternal and have no beginning. --(NOTE: The universe (including all matter, time, forces and space) had a beginning (Big Bang) and must have been caused by something greater; therefore the universe is not the Ultimate/Absolute. Likewise, if there were a "multiverse," it must also have a beginning and a cause.)

15. Being perfect is greater than being imperfect.

- - Being imperfect is derivative and lesser, since it is measured in comparison to the perfect. The ultimate/absolute being must be perfect.

16. Being immutable is greater than being mutable.

-- Immutability is an extension of being perfect, eternal and all-powerful (above). The ultimate --being perfect-- cannot change away from being perfect. Everything that is mutable is not ultimate or absolute, so the absolute/ultimate must be immutable.

17. Being independent is greater than being dependent.

--Anything that had a beginning (e.g. matter, forces, dimensions or time) is dependent on what came before it, caused it to exist and keeps it in existence. -- Any dependent thing is weaker, mutable and finite; it is not ultimate. - The ultimate is independent of all else.

18. Being spirit is greater than being material.

-- This derives from the above propositions and the fact that all material things (and things connected to matter, e.g. forces) are finite, temporal, mutable, dependent and have a cause that created them. --The ultimate/absolute must be spirit ...more specifically, a spirit with personality (per propositions 2 through 9).

19. Being infinite is greater than being finite.

-- Being infinite is only possible for a spirit-being since it is not possible to have an actual infinite number or extent of physical, spatial, temporal things: Everything that is part of (and connected to and dependent on) the universe (or multiverse, including all matter, forces, time, and dimensions) is finite; they can be counted or measured (no matter how many or how extensive). --The ultimate/absolute must be infinite to be truly ultimate.

20. Being immortal is greater than being mortal.

-- Immortality is an extension of a personal, eternal, all-powerful, immutable, spirit-being --which would also mean being indestructible. The ultimate Being must be immortal.

21. Being good is greater than being evil.

-- Evil is derivative and lesser, since it is merely a privation or lack of goodness. Evil is defined by goodness. Only goodness can be infinite, ultimate and eternal --and it must be prior to and greater than evil. (Good must ultimately overcome evil.) -- Thus, the ultimate/absolute being must be good.

22. Being just is greater than being unjust.

-- Justice is an extension and application of goodness (above) ...and therefore, Justice will cause good to stand and evil to fall. - The ultimate is just; it is right-ness.

23. Being the only and unrivaled "ultimate" being is greater than having equal peers ...or even competitors.

-- By definition, an "ultimate" being (who is almighty, perfect, and infinite) would necessarily be the unique and only such being in existence. There could be no "yin yang" opposite in existence which is an equal competitor. The ultimate being must be unrivaled and absolute.

24. Being loving is greater than being unloving.

-- Love is an extension of personality with infinite perfection, beauty, creativity, knowledge, wisdom, truth, goodness and justice.

25. Loving another "personality" is greater than an empty, unexpressed love of one personality in lonely, selfish isolation.

- - Perfect and fulfilled love involves infinitely deep sharing, admiration, appreciation, truth, faithfulness, communion, and expression of closeness and intimacy with another infinite "personality." - Thus, the ultimate/absolute being must include more than one infinite, eternal personality, between which all of the ultimate qualities of perfection and absolute love are shared.


Identity of this Ultimate / Absolute Being

In broad brush-strokes, we have imagined and described what the "Ultimate" and "Absolute" Being must be like: --It (He) must be an all-powerful, all-knowing, all-wise, personal, infinite and eternal spirit, who is perfect in goodness, logic, truth, justice and love, and is the creator of all things (etc., listed above). It so happens, that these points have basically described many of the essential attributes of the God of the Bible. There are other attributes the Bible describes which could have been included. No other religious "Scriptures" describe this ultimate being as completely --or authoritatively-- as the Bible does. The apostle Paul declares that "what may be known about God is plain to them (mankind), because God has made it plain to them. For since the creation of the world God's invisible qualities --his eternal power and divine nature-- have been clearly seen, being understood from what has been made (in creation), so that men are without excuse" (Romans 1:19, 20). From observing and thinking about the attributes and ultimate implications of the cosmos, nature and mankind, we realize what God (the ultimate/absolute Being) must be like.

--Thus, we fill out and apply the above 25 propositions:

1.The God of the Bible "exists."

-- God declared to Moses that one of his essential names is "YHWH" (perhaps pronounced YaHWeH), derived from the Hebrew verb "to Be," because God is; He always exists. So God told Moses to tell people that his name means "I Am," or as God said to Moses, "I Am that I Am." (Exodus 3:13-15). Only God exists as part of his own essential nature. The existence of everything else is derived from something which previously existed: God. So YHWH --God-- never came into being, but (in contrast) he "created all things" (Revelation 4:11). In contrast, cosmologists tell us that the Cosmos (including all matter, forces, time and space) had a beginning point (look up the "Big Bang"). (If there were a "multiverse," it must have had a beginning). For anything to exist now, something had to already exist forever in-and-of itself. That is the un-caused being who always existed, and who caused everything else to exist: the "I Am." --In history (not merely in mythological legend), the God of the Bible actually spoke to and through real people who really lived and reported it --namely, Israel's patriarchs, prophets, and the apostles, and Jesus --who rose from the dead and authoritatively endorsed the Bible.

2.The God of the Bible is ultimate logic and is logical.

-- This is exhibited in the fact that the Bible --God's revealed Word-- exists as natural human language which is given with the purpose of the logical communication of facts, truth and reality. Regarding God's communication, Jesus said to God: "Your word is truth" (John 17:17). Jesus himself is called the "Word" ("Logos" in Greek, John 1:1) which means the "ultimate logical principle" of the universe. And in giving its communication, the Bible consistently uses the three laws of logic (described above) throughout. We also see these three laws in the scope of the Bible's contents, as there is overall consistency and non-contradiction in its history, message, and teachings. For example, in 2Cor. 1:18-20, Paul says that their teaching about God's promises to people through Christ are not both "Yes" and "No" at the same time, but only "Yes." This aligns exactly with the "Law of Non-contradiction." (It is the case, however, that and there are things like figures of speech and rounded numbers, and some Bible statements are difficult to grasp, and not every statement is at first easily understood by a mere superficial reading.) -- People learn and use these three laws of logic from the day they are born. It is the nature of things in reality, "being understood from what has been made" (Rom.1:20). -- The reason logic is used in human thinking and language and all through God's Word is because that is how God communicates because that is what God is like: He is ultimately and perfectly logical.

. . . (Regarding Bible Difficulties see: Alleged Contradictions Explained)

3.The God of the Bible is ultimately and perfectly rational.

-- The Bible describes the divine God-man --Jesus Christ-- as "the Word," or "the Logos" (in New Testament Greek) when we read about him in the Gospel of John 1:1,14 --where it says, "In the beginning was the Word (Logos), and the Word was with God, and the word was God." A study of the Greek "Logos," reveals that it (Jesus) is: "the rational and logical principle which governs the Cosmos (universe and all creation), which is its basis and gives everything coherence and meaning." This same concept was applied to God's infinite creative power as he "spoke" the universe into existence (Psalm 33:6). -- Jesus Christ is God in the flesh, and he is the rational, logical principle and basis for the universe and everything ...a substantiation of propositions two and three. --We see this logical rationality in the "laws" and principles of the cosmos and in the laws of nature and biological information and design of living things... again, "being understood from what has been made" (Rom. 1:20).

4.The God of the Bible is All-Knowing.

-- This point comes out of points two and three. --"God is greater than our hearts, and He knows everything" (1 John 3:20). --"Nothing in all creation is hidden from God's sight. Everything is uncovered and laid bare before the eyes of him to whom we must give account" (Hebrews 4:13). --"Before a word is on my tongue you know it completely, O LORD" (Psalm 139:4). --God is " him who has perfect knowledge" (Job 37:16).

5.The God of the Bible is All-wise.

-- "Oh, the [infinite] depth of the riches of the wisdom and knowledge of God! How unsearchable his judgments, and his paths beyond tracing out!" (Romans 11:33). -- "His understanding is infinite" (Psalm 147:5). -- "to the only wise God be glory forever through Jesus Christ! Amen" (Romans 16:27).

6. The God of the Bible is Truth and Truthful.

--The God of the Bible is "the God of truth" (Isaiah 65:16; Psalm 31:5). -- "God is true" (John 3:33). -- He is "the only true God" (John 17:3). -- God's "word is truth" (John 17:17). -- Speaking of "God, who cannot lie" (Titus 1:2). -- Christ is "the Word" (Logos) and he is "full of grace and truth" (John 1:14). -- "It is impossible for God to lie" (Hebrews 6:18).

7. The God of the Bible has a mind.

-- God who "searches our hearts knows the mind of the Spirit" [of God] (Romans 8:27). -- God "will not lie or change his mind" (1 Sam. 15:29). --

8. The God of the Bible has organized all things according to his purpose and plan.

-- "The LORD Almighty" declares: "Surely, as I have planned, so will it be, and as I have purposed, so it will stand" (Isaiah 14:24), and he says, "My purpose will stand, and I will do all that I please. ...What I have planned, that will I do" (Isa. 46:10,11). --All events in history are not random, but are organized and directed by the sovereign God, as the apostle Paul declares that they will occur "according to the plan of him who works out everything in conformity with the purpose of his will" (Ephesians 1:11). -- In fact, God's plan is organized so specifically, that King David says, "All the days ordained for me were written in your book before one of them came to be" (Psalm 139:16). -- In addition, the design of living organisms (codified in their DNA) shows unimaginable organizational skill, which existed before mankind did... again, "being understood from what has been made" (Rom. 1:20)..

9. The God of the Bible is purposeful and has a "will" in deciding, planning and directing all events.

-- We read that God "works out everything in conformity with the purpose of his will" (Eph. 1:11). This is God's deciding and planning in regard to everything that happens at all times --everywhere. God Almighty declares, "as I have planned, so will it be, and as I have purposed, so it will happen" (Isaiah 14:24). --So, God wills, purposes, and plans, and then carries it out. And Psalm 115:3 says that God "does whatever he pleases," as nothing can stop or frustrate his will and plan.

10. The God of the Bible is the creator and creative beyond all understanding.

-- "God created the heavens and the earth" (Genesis 1:1), indicates the creation of the whole universe. (If there were a "multiverse," God would have created that as well). The rest of Genesis 1 and chapter 2 outline the creation of all plants and animals, and mankind as well. It is explained in the New Testament that all the work of creation took place through Christ (before his incarnation), as it says, "All things were made through him (Christ)," and, in fact, "without him nothing was made that was made" (John 1:3). In addition, Paul says that "in him all things were created, in heaven and on earth, visible and invisible" (Colossians 1:16), which would include all space and time and all sub-atomic properties and forces of physics. The design and perfect balance of all the forces of physics in the cosmos is beyond the grasp of all human intellect. --

11. The God of the Bible is personal --with self-awareness.

-- Although some conceptions portray God as an impersonal "force," the Bible portrays God as a personal being with a mind, emotions, will and conscious self-awareness, who interacts with other personal beings in a personal way. God has a mind, which is brought out in points 2 through 7; his possession of a will is shown in point 9. Various emotions of God are described such as pity (Psa. 103:13), anger (Ex. 32:10), rejoicing (Isa. 62:5), love (Psa. 103:17 + John 3:16) ...and he hates evil (Isa.61:8; Prov.6:16-19). In self-awareness, YHWH says, "I am God, and there is no other" (Isa. 46:9), and God's interactions with people are throughout the Bible. So God is a personal being.

12. The God of the Bible is All-powerful.

-- God is called "Almighty" about 345 times in the Bible, for example, God said to Abraham: "I am God Almighty" (Gen. 17:1). -- "Is anything too hard for the Lord?" (No, it's not.) -- "God is in heaven; he does whatever he pleases" (Psa. 115:3). -- Jeremiah said to God: "Nothing is too hard for you" (Jer. 17:11).

13. The God of the Bible is un-caused.

-- God is the creator of all other things, and He must, therefore, be un-created and un-caused. -- e.g: "Through him (God the Son) all things were made; without him nothing was made that has been made" (John 1:3). -- "You are worthy, our Lord and God, ... for you created all things" (Rev. 4:11).

14. The God of the Bible is eternal.

-- Isaiah declares that "the Lord is the everlasting God" (Isa. 40:28). -- The Psalmist says, "Before the mountains were born or you brought forth the whole world, from everlasting to everlasting you are God" (Psa. 90:2)... thus, God was already eternal before all creation.

15. The God of the Bible is perfect.

--Concerning God, Scripture says: "His way is perfect" (2Sam. 22:31); "His works are perfect" (Deut. 32:4); God is "the One who has perfect knowledge" (Job 36:4); God is "perfect in beauty" (Psa. 50:2)... as God's perfection has many facets.

16. The God of the Bible is immutable.

--In Scripture, God says: "I the Lord do not change" (Malachi 3:6). James 1:17 (ESV) states: "Every good gift and every perfect gift is from above, coming down from [God] the Father of lights, with whom there is no variation or shadow due to change." God (who is perfect) does not change, and he --being almighty-- cannot be changed by anything else.

17. The God of the Bible is independent.

--While in Athens, Paul proclaimed: "The God who made the world and everything in it, being Lord of heaven and earth, does not live in shrines made by man, nor is he served by human hands, as though he needed anything, since he himself gives to all men life and breath and everything"(Acts 17:24-25). We see that God is the creator of all things. He is over everything, sustains it all and lacks nothing. Nothing exists that could add anything to him or sustain or support him in any way. He is absolutely independent from all else.

18. The God of the Bible is spirit.

--Jesus informed his listeners that "God is spirit" (John 4:24). He did not merely say that God is "a spirit," but that God is spirit. So when people wonder what God is made of, he is comprised of spirit; He does not have a physical body, and is not comprised of anything such as energy or matter or anything dimensional or localized.

19. The God of the Bible is infinite.

--This is related to the fact that "God is spirit" (Jn. 4:24) and he should not be thought of as being localized, but it is more that he "fills heaven and earth" (Jer. 23:23-24) ...in fact Solomon said to God "the highest heaven (universe) cannot contain you" (1 Kings 8:27). And it isn't merely that God is very big, but rather, that God is everywhere possible all at once, and is beyond the universe, as it is expressed in Psalm 139:7-10 that there is no possible place where God is not fully present. God is infinite. In addition --as has been expressed-- God is also infinite in his other attributes such as knowledge, wisdom and power.

20. The God of the Bible is immortal.

--This is a necessary outgrowth of the fact that God is the "I Am" (Ex. 3:13-15), who always exists in-and-of himself; he is the "necessary being" who is the source and creator of all other things (Rev. 4:11; John 1:3). He is also the one who exists "from everlasting" (in infinite past) "to everlasting" (in the eternal future) (Psa. 90:2 and Isa. 40:28) ...infinitely longer than the mere 14 billion-year-old universe. In addition, he is almighty (Gen. 17:11) and absolutely unopposed in power. So it is totally logical that he is specifically described as being "immortal" (Rom. 1:23; 1Tim. 1:17; 6:16).

21. The God of the Bible is good.

--There are many things --from food, to music, to "nice" people-- which are said to be "good" in some way or another, but God is so absolutely and perfectly righteous, moral and holy that his "goodness" is infinitely beyond compare, to the degree that Jesus even said that: "No one is good-- except God alone" (Mark 10:18). That is, if there were any imagined comparison to God's goodness, --there is no comparison. Similarly, Moses said of God: "his works are perfect, and all his ways are just. A faithful God who does no wrong" (Deut. 32:4). -- He is good to absolute, infinite perfection.

22. The God of the Bible is just.

--"The heavens proclaim his righteousness, for he is a God of justice" (Psalm 50:6). - "all his ways are just" (Deut. 32:4). -- And God will dispense ultimate justice: "Will not the judge of all the earth do right?" (Gen. 18:25). -- "We will all stand before God's judgment seat" (Rom. 14:10).

23. The God of the Bible is the one, unrivaled, true God.

-- God says: "Is there any God besides me? No! There is no other rock; I know not one." (Isa. 44:8).-- God challenges: "Who is my equal?" (Isa. 40:25). The answer? "Nobody." He is absolutely unrivaled. -- God says: "I will not yield my glory to another" (Isa. 42:8). -- God says: "I am the LORD, and there is no other; apart from me there is no God." (Isa. 45:5). -- "There is no God apart from me." (Isa. 45:21). -- He is "the one true God" (Isa. 65:16). -- The God of the Bible is the one and only, unrivaled, ultimate being that truly exists in reality.

24. The God of the Bible is a loving God.

-- He is "the God of love" (2Cor. 13:11). -- He has "unfailing love" (Psa. 36:7). -- "His love endures forever" (Psa. 136:2). -- "God so loved the world that he gave his only begotten Son [Christ], that whoever believes in him should not perish, but have everlasting life" (John 3:16). "God is love" (1 John 4:16).

25. The God of the Bible is one being with three personalities who eternally love each other.

The three "personalities" of the one being of God are: The Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit (Mat. 28:19; 2Cor.13:14). Each personality is distinct from the other, and yet each is fully God, possessing all the infinite (point #19) attributes, authority, power, glory and holiness of God. These are not three Gods, but three personalities of the one, true and living being of God (point #23). In God, these three personalities existed --and loved each other-- for an eternity before the universe was created (point #14). If God had only had one personality, then God's sharing of infinite love and perfect intimacy throughout eternity past would not have been possible; a God with only one personality would be lacking in intimate sharing, and would not be ultimate. Within the one and only being of God, these three personalities had infinite intimacy, admiration, closeness and sharing of pure and perfect love that mere creatures will never --in all eternity-- grasp or appreciate. Only these divine personalities are adequate to share and fulfill the infinite perfection and depth of God's love. Thus, it is necessary that these personalities have eternally existed in the sharing of this perfect love. They lacked nothing for all eternity before anything was created, and man added nothing to God's perfections (point #15). Then --after mankind's creation and fall into sin-- God the eternal "Son" was incarnated into a sinless human who was Jesus Christ, the God-man. So he had two distinct (undiluted, unaltered) natures --divine and human-- and so He was fully God, and at the same time fully a real (but sinless) man. --Concerning their love, the Scriptures say: "The Father loves the Son and has placed everything in his hands" (Jn. 3:35). -- Christ declares: "I love the Father" (Jn. 14:31). -- Romans 15:30 mentions "the love of the [Holy] Spirit." -- Galatians 5:22 states that "the fruit of the Spirit is love." -- In fact, by way of love's perfect expression within the ultimate and absolute Being, 1John 4:16 declares that "God is love." This is infinitely true in the three personalities of God and God alone. The gracious salvation of sinful man is an out-growth of this perfect love.


Praying for you all the best! - R. Totten

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The Best Explanation For The Way Things Are In Reality

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